Vitamin K and Osteoporosis
There are several studies relating high prevalence of disease and drug specific osteopenia and osteoporosis relating to vitamin K status. Schoon et al¹, in a 32 patient Crohn’s disease study, conclude ucOC inversely associated with bone mineral density. Tamatani et al² concluded that vitamin K1 and MK-7 were significantly, positively correlated with bone mineral density. Kanai et al³ observed low BMD in women with lower serum vitamin K1 and K2. Hodges et al⁴ sites that vitamin K2 may be up to 25 times more active than vitamin K1. His study of 29 patients with fracture, 17 controls, concluded that vitamin K1 and K2 were significantly lower in the fracture group than in the control group.
Takahashi et al⁵ carried out a study to determine effect of vitamin K vs. that of vitamin D. They concluded that ucOC decreased significantly in the groups receiving vitamin K (vitamin K only and vitamin K+D); whereas in the vitamin D-only group ucOC did not change significantly. Why bone loss is predisposed in microgravity is unknown but the ucOC lowering in the cosmonauts is controlled by vitamin K supplementation⁶. Females having strenuous life style are prone to hypoestrogenism and amenorrhoea. As a consequence a low peak bone mass and rapid bone loss is often seen in relatively young athletes. Craciun et al⁷ working with 8 female marathon runners observed in all subjects increased vitamin K was associated with an increased calcium-binding capacity of osteocalcin. In the low-estrogen group vitamin K supplementation induced a 15-20% increase of bone formation markers and a parallel 20- 25% decrease of bone resorption markers. This shift is suggestive for an improved balance between bone formation and resorption. Sokoll et al⁸ show a significant reduction in ucOC with vitamin K supplementation.
Recent studies (2008) of Tsugawa et al⁹ relate a significantly higher incidence of vertebral fracture of 14.4% in the low vitamin K group to 4.2 % in the high vitamin K group. This study involved a cohort of 379 healthy women aged 30-88 years. Lucas et al¹⁰ (2006) conclude that premenopausal women show reduced BMD despite normal oestrogen profiles. %ucOC may be a specific bone marker of the early post-menopause in healthy women.
Effective formulations: Ca+K2+D3
Calcium is essential for bone health and for keeping the bone mass in the human skeleton. Sufficient intake of calcium has a significant role in building and maintaining maximum bone mass and consumers should not doubt the effectiveness of calcium. Most people do not get enough calcium from diet alone, and this is where a calcium supplement can be important to humans of all ages.
However, large studies over the past 20 years with as much as 12.000 participants shows that calcium taken alone can increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases, myocardial infarction and stroke by as much as 30% according to a study published in British Medical Journal¹¹ This is called the “calcium paradox”¹² We believe that a unique new Calcium Supplement with natural vitamin K2 as Vitamin K2-7 and vitamin D3 for effective calcium utilisation and reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases may be the solution¹³.
These three ingredients work synergistically, which may assist with:
- Building and maintaining strong bones
- Preventing Cardiovascular diseases, by reducing the risk of cardiovascular death by nearly 50%
- Optimising the peak bone mass
We believe that this formulation will ensure an optimal uptake of calcium, before and during menopause, to help prevent osteoporosis. At the same time, vitamin K2 works synergistically with and improves the efficiency of bisphosphonate drugs to further benefit osteocalcin activation and bone mineral density.
- Schoon EJ, Muller MC, Vermeer C, Schurgers LJ, Brummer RJ, Stockbrugger RW: Low serum and bone vitamin K status in patients with longstanding Crohn’s disease: another pathogenetic factor of osteoporosis in Crohn’s disease? Gut 2001, 48(4):473-477.
- Tamatani M, Morimoto S, Nakajima M, Fukuo K, Onishi T, Kitano S, Niinobu T, Ogihara T: Decreased circulating levels of vitamin K and 25-hydroxyvitamin D in osteopenic elderly men. Metabolism 1998, 47(2):195-199.
- Kanai T, Takagi T, Masuhiro K, Nakamura M, Iwata M, Saji F: Serum vitamin K level and bone mineral density in post-menopausal women. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 1997, 56(1):25-30.
- Hodges SJ, Pilkington MJ, Stamp TC, Catterall A, Shearer MJ, Bitensky L, Chayen J: Depressed levels of circulating menaquinones in patients with osteoporotic fractures of the spine and femoral neck. Bone 1991, 12(6):387-389.
- Takahashi M, Naitou K, Ohishi T, Kushida K, Miura M: Effect of vitamin K and/or D on undercarboxylated and intact osteocalcin in osteoporotic patients with vertebral or hip fractures. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2001, 54(2):219-224.
- Caillot-Augusseau A, Vico L, Heer M, Voroviev D, Souberbielle JC, Zitterman A, Alexandre C, Lafage-Proust MH: Space flight is associated with rapid decreases of undercarboxylated osteocalcin and increases of markers of bone resorption without changes in their circadian variation: observations in two cosmonauts. Clin Chem 2000, 46(8 Pt 1):1136-1143.
- Craciun AM, Wolf J, Knapen MH, Brouns F, Vermeer C: Improved bone metabolism in female elite athletes after vitamin K supplementation [In Process Citation]. Int J Sports Med 1998, 19(7):479-484.
- Sokoll LJ, Booth SL, O’Brien ME, Davidson KW, Tsaioun KI, Sadowski JA: Changes in serum osteocalcin, plasma phylloquinone, and urinary gamma- carboxyglutamic acid in response to altered intakes of dietary phylloquinone in human subjects. Am J Clin Nutr 1997, 65(3):779-784.
- Tsugawa N, Shiraki M, Suhara Y, Kamao M, Ozaki R, Tanaka K, Okano T: Low plasma phylloquinone concentration is associated with high incidence of vertebral fracture in Japanese women. J Bone Miner Metab 2008, 26(1):79-85.
- Lukacs JL, Booth S, Kleerekoper M, Ansbacher R, Rock CL, Reame NE: Differential associations for menopause and age in measures of vitamin K, osteocalcin, and bone density: a cross-sectional exploratory study in healthy volunteers. Menopause 2006, 13(5):799-808.
- British Medical Journal (BMJ) 2008 “Calcium supplements in healthy post-menopausal women
- Walin R. , Wajh N. , Greenwood G. T. et al. Arteria calcification: a review of mechanisms l, animal models and the prospects for therapy. Med Res. Res. Rev. 2001; 21: 274-30
- Geleijnse, J.M. et al. 2004: Dietary intake of menaquione is associated with a reduced risk of coronary diseases: The Rotterdam study. AM Soc. Nutr Science. May 2004. Nutritinal Epidmiology